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来源:未知 作者:木木 人气: 发布时间:2017-08-12
摘要:2017-08-10 18:05 起源:聚英考研网 经济学人 / 麻省理工学院 原题目:每日一篇 | 《经济学人》读译参考 Day68 TEXT 68 经济学人:国际转账的代价穷人挨税 Finance and economics: The cost ofinternational transfers A tax on the poor 财经:国际转账的代价
2017-08-10 18:05 起源:聚英考研网 经济学人 /麻省理工学院

原题目:每日一篇 | 《经济学人》读译参考 Day68



Finance and economics: The cost ofinternational transfers A tax on the poor


Regulation is keeping remittances unnecessarilyexpensive.


After sweating through a day's work under the hotDubai sun, the last thing an Indian construction worker wants is to donate a slug of hisearnings to a bank or money-transfer outfit.Yet that is what he must do.On average, 6.9 cents of every dollar remitted to India from another country is eaten up by feesand foreign-exchange margins, according to the World Bank.Indians get off relatively lightly.A sub-Saharan African migrant loses an average of 9.7 cents.



In 2009 the G8 pledged to cut the average cost of international remittances to 5% of the sumsent within five years.Rates have since come down, but not by much: the average is now 7.7%.And the implicit tax on remittances is even higher than these figures suggest, since they arebased on transfers of $200, but many payments are smaller.



In part, Dilip Ratha of the World Bank blames the exclusive agreements signed by banks andother companies involved in handling remittances.By reducing competition, these keep prices high.Some countries, including India, have banned such tie-ups, but they remain common in Africa.



In 2014 the Overseas Development Institute, a think-tank, estimated that if the average costof sending money to Africa could be cut to 5%, it would mean $1.8 billion more for thecontinent every year.Still, Mr Ratha is optimistic.



Challengers to the banks and big money-transfer firms are popping up, particularly in London.Flush with venture capital, they claim they can use technology to cut costs.



TransferWise began as a peer-to-peer foreign-exchange service for the rich world; TaavetHinrikus, one of its founders, says India is now the firm's fastest-growing destination.It plans to offer transfers to Mexico soon.Sending money abroad is comparatively simple.The difficulty lies in getting the cash to spouses and parents in poor countries, who probably donot have bank accounts and may live a long way from a bank branch.



Big money-transfer outfits like MoneyGram and Western Union have hundreds of thousands ofagents and thus a colossal advantage in the cash market.But Ismail Ahmed, of WorldRemit, an online transfer service, reckons the rapid growth ofmobile money in places like Kenya, Somaliland and Zimbabwe is eroding this advantage.Most of the money sent to Africa through WorldRemit goes to mobile accounts.Technology can do less to tackle another problem.


诸如速汇金和西联汇款等大型汇款公司在世界各地拥有成千上百的代办商,从而在现金市场上占有宏大优势。然而网络汇款公司WorldRemit创始人Ismial Ahmed以为,移动货币在肯尼亚、索马里和津巴韦布等地方倏地发展,导致这一优势不断遭到削弱。大部分经过WorldRemit转往非洲的款项都是通过移动账户转账的。然而现有技术难以解决另一个困难。

Anti-money-laundering and counter-terrorism regulations are making banks reluctant to cleartransfers to conflict- or crime-racked spots such as Somalia, which depends on remittances.“Derisking”, as this trend is known, is spreading to bigger countries.Odilon Almeida of Western Union says this is bound to reduce competition and thus drive upprices.It is also, probably, pushing remittances into obscure and illegal channels, which is no goodfor anybody.


反洗钱和反恐惧主义的相关法规使得各大银行越来越不愿意在相似索马里等依赖汇款却又极易产生摩擦和犯罪的处所开设转账服务。这种称为“去风险化”的趋势不断扩散到其他大国。西联汇款执行副主席Odilon Almeida称,这必定会减少竞争从而抬高手续费。这有可能迫使人们通过机密的非法渠道进行汇款,而对所有人来说,这种做法百害而无一利。


1.hundreds of thousands of 成千上万的

例句:Hundreds of thousands of people packed into the mosque. 几十万人挤进了那座清真寺。

2.illegal channel 非法渠道

例句:Some domestic enterprises produce and sell chemicals without authorization, making chemicals convert into illegal channels. 国内个别企业擅自违规生产、经销,致使化学品流入非法渠道。

3.drive up 抬高;迫使...回升

例句:It could help prevent some accidents, it could also drive up the cost of a car. 它可能会预防一些事故,它也可能会进步汽车的本钱。

4.depends on 取决于

例句:The development of the food industry depends on that of agriculture. 食物工业的发展有赖于农业的发展。