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来源:未知 作者:木木 人气: 发布时间:2017-08-12
摘要:2017-08-10 18:05 起源:聚英考研网 经济学人 / 麻省理工学院 原题目:每日一篇 | 《经济学人》读译参考 Day68 TEXT 68 经济学人:国际转账的代价穷人挨税 Finance and economics: The cost ofinternational transfers A tax on the poor 财经:国际转账的代价
2017-08-10 18:05 起源:聚英考研网 经济学人 /麻省理工学院

原题目:每日一篇 | 《经济学人》读译参考 Day68

TEXT 68

经济学人:国际转账的代价穷人挨税

Finance and economics: The cost ofinternational transfers A tax on the poor

财经:国际转账的代价,穷人挨税

Regulation is keeping remittances unnecessarilyexpensive.

相关法规导致汇款手续费虚高,而这种费用可有可无。

After sweating through a day's work under the hotDubai sun, the last thing an Indian construction worker wants is to donate a slug of hisearnings to a bank or money-transfer outfit.Yet that is what he must do.On average, 6.9 cents of every dollar remitted to India from another country is eaten up by feesand foreign-exchange margins, according to the World Bank.Indians get off relatively lightly.A sub-Saharan African migrant loses an average of 9.7 cents.

译文

在迪拜的烈日底下,刚刚忙完工作的印度修建工人急着去银行或者汇款处上缴微薄的收入。无奈的是他不得不这么做。据世界银行统计,其他国家向印度每汇入1美金,手续费和外汇差额平均将会吞掉其中的6.9分钱。印度人损失相对较少。撒哈拉沙漠以南的非洲国家移民者则平均损失9.7分钱。

In 2009 the G8 pledged to cut the average cost of international remittances to 5% of the sumsent within five years.Rates have since come down, but not by much: the average is now 7.7%.And the implicit tax on remittances is even higher than these figures suggest, since they arebased on transfers of $200, but many payments are smaller.

译文

2009年,八国集团曾经许诺在五年内把国际汇款平均手续费降低至本金的5%。自此,费率下降了,但降得不痛不痒:目前仍旧平均高达7.7%。上述数据以汇款金额到达200美金以上作为基本,但实际上大部分汇款金额并没有达到这个要求,使得有关部门对汇款征收的隐形税远远高于图表中揭示的数据。

In part, Dilip Ratha of the World Bank blames the exclusive agreements signed by banks andother companies involved in handling remittances.By reducing competition, these keep prices high.Some countries, including India, have banned such tie-ups, but they remain common in Africa.

译文

世界银行学者拉塔在某种水平上指责各大银行与其余公司共同签订了一份波及处置汇款问题的独家协议。他们通过减少行业竞争导致手续费一直居高不下。包含印度在内的某些国家已经制止了这种贸易捆绑关系,但这种关联在非洲国家依然非常广泛。

In 2014 the Overseas Development Institute, a think-tank, estimated that if the average costof sending money to Africa could be cut to 5%, it would mean $1.8 billion more for thecontinent every year.Still, Mr Ratha is optimistic.

译文

在2014年,“英国海外发展研究所”智囊团预估,向非洲国家汇款时,如果能把均匀手续费下降至5%,这就意味着非洲国家每年将会增加18亿存款。只管如斯,拉塔先生对此仍旧抱有乐观心态。

Challengers to the banks and big money-transfer firms are popping up, particularly in London.Flush with venture capital, they claim they can use technology to cut costs.

译文

面对各大银行和大型汇款公司的垄断,众多挑衅者不断涌现,尤其是在伦敦地域。他们拥有充分的危险资本,并宣称本人能够利用现有技巧减免手续费。

TransferWise began as a peer-to-peer foreign-exchange service for the rich world; TaavetHinrikus, one of its founders, says India is now the firm's fastest-growing destination.It plans to offer transfers to Mexico soon.Sending money abroad is comparatively simple.The difficulty lies in getting the cash to spouses and parents in poor countries, who probably donot have bank accounts and may live a long way from a bank branch.

译文

TransferWise刚成立时只是一间在富饶国家里供给点对点外汇服务的公司。这间公司其中一位开创人TaavetHinrikus称,印度是目前公司业务发展最快的地区。该公司很快将会方案把汇款业务拓展至墨西哥。国外汇款相对简略。但问题在于身处穷困国家的妻子和父母怎样在没有银行账户或家离银行很远的情形下取款。

Big money-transfer outfits like MoneyGram and Western Union have hundreds of thousands ofagents and thus a colossal advantage in the cash market.But Ismail Ahmed, of WorldRemit, an online transfer service, reckons the rapid growth ofmobile money in places like Kenya, Somaliland and Zimbabwe is eroding this advantage.Most of the money sent to Africa through WorldRemit goes to mobile accounts.Technology can do less to tackle another problem.

译文

诸如速汇金和西联汇款等大型汇款公司在世界各地拥有成千上百的代办商,从而在现金市场上占有宏大优势。然而网络汇款公司WorldRemit创始人Ismial Ahmed以为,移动货币在肯尼亚、索马里和津巴韦布等地方倏地发展,导致这一优势不断遭到削弱。大部分经过WorldRemit转往非洲的款项都是通过移动账户转账的。然而现有技术难以解决另一个困难。

Anti-money-laundering and counter-terrorism regulations are making banks reluctant to cleartransfers to conflict- or crime-racked spots such as Somalia, which depends on remittances.“Derisking”, as this trend is known, is spreading to bigger countries.Odilon Almeida of Western Union says this is bound to reduce competition and thus drive upprices.It is also, probably, pushing remittances into obscure and illegal channels, which is no goodfor anybody.

译文

反洗钱和反恐惧主义的相关法规使得各大银行越来越不愿意在相似索马里等依赖汇款却又极易产生摩擦和犯罪的处所开设转账服务。这种称为“去风险化”的趋势不断扩散到其他大国。西联汇款执行副主席Odilon Almeida称,这必定会减少竞争从而抬高手续费。这有可能迫使人们通过机密的非法渠道进行汇款,而对所有人来说,这种做法百害而无一利。

注释

1.hundreds of thousands of 成千上万的

例句:Hundreds of thousands of people packed into the mosque. 几十万人挤进了那座清真寺。

2.illegal channel 非法渠道

例句:Some domestic enterprises produce and sell chemicals without authorization, making chemicals convert into illegal channels. 国内个别企业擅自违规生产、经销,致使化学品流入非法渠道。

3.drive up 抬高;迫使...回升

例句:It could help prevent some accidents, it could also drive up the cost of a car. 它可能会预防一些事故,它也可能会进步汽车的本钱。

4.depends on 取决于

例句:The development of the food industry depends on that of agriculture. 食物工业的发展有赖于农业的发展。

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